Saturday, April 1, 2017
What is the internet of things at nanoscale?
What is the internet of nanoscale things?
In-body networks monitoring real-time blood, sickness and breath tests;
Use in public locations to monitor the spread of viruses and diseases; and
Hooked up to wearable health and environmental trackers.
Methods of communication
This is defined as the transmission and reception of information encoded in molecules. Molecular transceivers are expected to be easily integrated in nano-devices due to their size and domain of operation. These transceivers are able to react to specific molecules, and to release others as a response to an internal command or after performing some type of processing.
This is defined as the transmission and reception of electromagnetic radiation from components based on novel nanomaterials.
Network architecture for IoNT
In intrabody networks, nanomachines such as nanosensors and nanoactuators deployed inside the human body are remotely controlled from the macroscale and over the internet by an external user such as a health care provider. The nanoscale is the natural domain of molecules, proteins, DNA, organelles and the major components of cells. Amongst others, existing biological nanosensors and nanoactuators provide an interface between biological phenomena and electronic nano-devices, which can be exploited through this new networking paradigm.
In the interconnected office, every single element normally found in an office and even its internal components are provided of a nanotransceiver which allows them to be permanently connected to the internet.
Demands for nano IoT
Convenience and almost seamless deployment;
Tiny and nonobtrusive devices;
The possibility to harvest vibrational, mechanical or even electromagnetic energy from the environment;
Ultra-low power consumption; and
Reasonable computing capabilities.
The smallest and simplest nanomachines, they are able to perform simple computation, have limited memory and can only transmit over very short distances, mainly because of their reduced energy and limited communication capabilities. Biological nanosensor nodes inside the human body and nanomachines with communication capabilities integrated in all types of things such as books, keys, or paper folders are good examples of nano-nodes.
Comparatively larger computational resources than nano-nodes and are suitable for aggregating information coming from limited nanomachines. In addition, nano-routers also can control the behavior of nano-nodes by exchanging very simple control commands (on/off, sleep, read value, etc.). However, this increase in capabilities involves an increase in their size, and this makes their deployment more invasive. Nano-micro interface devices are able to aggregate the information coming from nanorouters, to convey it to the microscale, and vice versa.
Enables the remote control of the entire system over the internet. For example, in an intrabody network scenario, an advanced cellphone can forward the information it receives from a nano-micro interface in our wrist to our health care provider. In the interconnected office, a modem-router can provided this functionality. Despite the interconnection of microscale devices, the development of gateways and the network management over the internet are still open research areas, in the remaining of this article we mainly focus on the communication challenges among nanomachines.
Technologies enabling smaller data collection