A density-matrix formalism within the length gauge is developed to calculate the nonlinear response of both doped and undoped biased bilayer graphene (BBLG) at terahertz frequencies. Employing a tight-binding model, we derive an effective two-band Hamiltonian with which we calculate the conduction and valence band dispersion, as well as their respective Bloch states. We then solve for the dynamic equations of the density matrix elements, allowing for the calculation of the intraband and interband current densities and the transmitted and reflected terahertz fields. We find that for undoped BBLG with a gap size of 4 meV, the reflected field exhibits a third harmonic amplitude that is 45% of the fundamental in the reflected field (0.07% of the incident field fundamental) for an incident 1 THz single-cycle pulse with a field amplitude of 2.0 kV/cm. We find for doped BBLG, although the dispersion becomes highly nonparabolic as a bias is applied, the third harmonic is a maximum of 8% of the fundamental in the reflected field (0.56% of the incident field fundamental) when there is no bias and diminishes with an increase in bias.
Tuesday, January 3, 2017
Abstract-Nonlinear response of biased bilayer graphene at terahertz frequencies
(Submitted on 30 Dec 2016)